Sperm donation is one of the techniques used in the implementation of PMA (medically assisted procreation) treatments. Thanks to the gametes of a donor, couples who have problems with infertility can realize their dreams of starting a family. How is the sperm donation? In which cases is it possible? How is sperm donation important for IVF (in vitro fertilization) or artificial insemination associated with it? How are the donors selected? How do the Spanish laws frame the donation of gametes? Use a sperm donor: what you need to know. Now the fertility doctor is the best option there.
Some elements of understanding about sperm and spermatozoa
Sperm is the fluid secreted by the male genitals. It contains, among other things, spermatozoa, which are essential for the fertilization of the oocyte. The analysis called spermogram allows evaluating the quantity and the quality of the sperm. Sperm is considered to be normally fertilizing if it contains between 20 and 300 million spermatozoa per milliliter. If the density of the gametes is below this threshold, we are faced with what is called an oligospermia or azoospermia when it is a total absence of spermatozoa.
When is the use of sperm donation?
Sperm donation is a technique commonly used for male infertility, which involves using an outside donor to obtain a pregnancy. Depending on the situation, it may be associated with different medically assisted procreation treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or artificial insemination (AI).
Using a sperm donor can be recommended when:
The situation of the couple does not allow reaching a pregnancy by usual techniques, whether in case of male infertility in a heterosexual couple (oligospermia or azoospermia of the spouse), if the patient is single or if she wishes get pregnant without the intervention of a male partner.
- Sperm of the spouse has a serious pathology and several cycles of in vitro fertilization with ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection) have failed
- Spermatozoa are absent from ejaculate or testicular biopsy
- The patient has an undetectable genetic disease on the embryo
The sperm donor is voluntary. It acts freely without any external pressure. He can change his consent to the use of spermatozoa. There are the top fertility specialists for this task.
The sperm donation is anonymous: the donor cannot know the identity of the recipient and vice versa. Similarly, no filiation can be established between the unborn child and the sperm donor.
The major sperm donor must be in good health, both physical and mental. It must have a normal reproductive tract and be free of genetic history or sexually transmitted diseases. According to Spanish law, unmarried or homosexual women and lesbian couples are eligible for sperm donation, just like heterosexual couples.
How are sperm donors selected?
Once collected, sperm samples are frozen in liquid nitrogen at -196 ° C, before being stored in sperm banks. Kept in quarantine for six months, they are subjected to a series of examinations to avoid the risks of sexually transmitted diseases. At the end of this period, a new battery of tests is carried out to validate the absence of infectious phenomena.